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双语健康:过度饮水的危害

作者: NYTALK管理者 点击:345 难度:高级
 What Happens If We Drink Too Much Water

  
  Drinking the Right Amount of Water
  
  应当适量补充水分
  
  In order for human cells and organs to function properly, we need an adequate amount of water in our bodies. Since nearly all activities cause people to lose water, it's essential to replenish our water levels. The standard rule for water replenishment is the 8x8 method: eight ounces of water, eight times a day. However, other dietary recommendations, such as those from the
Institute of Medicine, recommend 13 cups a day for men and 9 cups a day for women. The exact amount of water that people should consume each day depends on factors such as body weight, level of activity and diet.
  
  我们需要充足的水分让身体细胞和器官正常运作。因为人类所有活动都会消耗水分,而补水就成了必要的一步。标准的补水方案是8x8:每日8次,每次8盎司。但是也存在其他的饮食建议,如医学研究所:男性每天应喝13杯水,女性每天应喝9杯水。其实,人体日常准确的补水量取决于个人体重,活动量和饮食。
  
  While hydration is absolutely essential to a healthily functioning body, too much water, especially over a short period of time can be dangerous and even fatal. If a person drinks more water than her kidneys can excrete, the overall electrolyte level in the blood will drop significantly and the excess water can enter and swell your brain cells, resulting in a potential seizure and/or coma.
  
  水虽然是身体健康运作不可或缺的因子,但过多的量,尤其是短
时间内大量补充实则有害健康,甚至还会致命。如果人体吸收的水分超过其肾脏可排泄范围,血液中整体的电解质水平将会大幅度下降,一旦多余水分进入大脑,大脑细胞受到膨胀,就会导致潜在疾病发作或引发昏迷。


  
  The Mechanics of Water Intoxication
  
  水中毒剖析
  
  One of the most serious results of too much water consumption is hyponatremia, a decrease in the blood's sodium level. If more water enters the body than the kidneys can process, the mineral content of the blood decreases and the blood's overall sodium levels drop. When sodium and electrolyte levels drop in the blood, water can escape the blood and enter the cells as the blood and the cells struggle for electrolyte equilibrium. While the swelling of cells because of water is never good, it's particularly dangerous when it occurs in the brain known as cerebral edema)。 Since the brain is housed within the skull, with little room to grow, brain cell swelling will lead to brain damage if severe enough. If a person continues to add water to his body, the swelling process will continue and the damage may be irreversible.
  
  In addition, a massive increase in water will add to the body's overall blood volume and put tremendous strain on the heart and circulatory system.
  
  低钠血症是过度补水带来最严重的结果,血液中的钠含量会降低。倘若体内吸收的水分超过了肾脏承受范围,血液中的矿物含量将会减少,而整体的钠含量也会骤降。钠离子和电解质含量一旦减少,血液和细胞就会抢争电解质,而水分也会同时脱离血液进入细胞。水肿的细胞对身体绝对无益,若是脑细胞出现水肿更是危险(称为脑水肿)。因为头骨紧密覆盖大脑,其中伸展空间极小,脑细胞若极度肿胀就会导致大脑受损。此时人体若继续补水,细胞也就会持续肿胀,对大脑造成不可逆的损害。
  

  Symptoms of Water Intoxication
  
  水中毒症状
  
  The most severe symptoms of water intoxication occur when hyponatremia leads to cerebral edema. Symptoms of cerebral edema mirror other brain conditions such as tumors and concussions. Common symptoms of cerebral edema start with a headache that increases in intensity followed by mental confusion and seizures. Vomiting and exhaustion are also possible. As the brain cells continue to swell, the risk of death from water intoxication increases.
  
  当低钠血症引发脑水肿时,就会出现最严重的情况。脑水肿可诱发其他大脑疾病,如脑肿瘤和脑震荡。常见的脑水肿始于剧烈的头痛,伴随着的症状还有精神混乱和癫痫症。也可能出现呕吐和乏力的状况。倘若脑细胞继续水肿,死亡的风险也将攀升。

  
  Tips for Preventing Water Intoxication
  
  预防水中毒小贴士
  
  The easiest way to avoid water intoxication is not to make a conscious attempt to drink as much water as possible. Water drinking contests, whereby contestants try to drink gallons of water in short periods of time, are especially dangerous.
Marathon runners and others who may lose large amounts of water are at risk if they try to rehydrate too quickly. For people who require above average amounts of water, it is best to ration that water and sip it rather gulp it. If you begin to suffer any of the symptoms of cerebral edema, immediately stop drinking water and seek professional assistance.
  
  杜绝潜意识里企图喝水的习惯是预防水中毒的最简方式。耗水量大的竞赛,即在短时间内需喝数加仑的水的竞赛,尤其危险。马拉松选手和其他在比赛中失水量大的选手,如果他们补水速度过快,就会产生风险。若有人对水的需求量高于平均值,最好是定额配给,小口啜,切忌一饮而尽。如果你开始出现脑水肿症状,立即停止饮水,寻求专业救护。