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极理事会考虑接纳中国为观察员国《华尔街日报》

作者: NYTALK管理者 点击:581 难度:高级
                Arctic Council Considers China's Bid to Observe Meeting
 
 
The Arctic Council, a once-obscure regional forum that had little to show for itself, has nations queuing to participate at a meeting this week in Sweden, as melting ice makes shipping, tourism and resource extraction a reality in the nebulously delineated region.
北极理事会(Arctic Council)曾是个鲜为人知的地区论坛,几乎没有成果可对外展示。如今,随着坚冰消融让这个人们了解甚少的地区得以实现通航、旅游和资源开采,诸多国家正排队等待出席本周于瑞典举行的会议。
 
Among the 14 countries and organizations seeking so-called observer status at the meeting in Kiruna, northern Sweden, will be China, whose increased interest in the Arctic underscores the region's re-emergence as an area of potential geopolitical intrigue.
会议将于瑞典北部城市基律纳(Kiruna)召开,共14个国家和组织寻求获得所谓的观察员身份,这其中就有中国。中国对北极兴趣的增加凸显出该地区再次成为潜在地缘政治谜团的话题。
 
The council's eight permanent members--the U.S., Canada, Russia and five Nordic nations--must agree to admit the new members. The Nordic nations, which have been courted aggressively by China, say they will. Canada has expressed reservations. It is unclear whether the U.S., which is sending Secretary of State John Kerry to the meeting, and Russia will agree, as they wake up to the increased economic, and perhaps military, potential of the vast stretches of Arctic territory within and north of their borders.
北极理事会共有八个常任理事国,分别是美国、加拿大、俄罗斯和五个北欧国家。须在得到这些常任理事国允许的前提下,北极理事会才能“纳新”。中国一直在积极接触这五个北欧国家,它们也说会接收中国成为新成员。加拿大对此持保留意见。美国和俄罗斯是否同意现在还不得而知。这两个国家开始意识到,其国界内及以北绵延不绝的北极地区经济甚至军事潜力都有所增加。美国将派国务卿克里(John Kerry)出席会议。
 
'Joining the council is more a political statement from countries like China,' said Malte Humpert, an executive director at the Arctic Institute, a Washington-based nonpartisan think tank, 'the idea of having a seat at the table in a region that is likely to become another realm of geopolitics.'
华盛顿无党派智库北极研究所(Arctic Institute)执行理事洪佩特(Malte Humpert)说,中国等国家加入北极理事会其实更多的是一种政治声明,它们就是想在谈判桌上占个位子,因为这个地区可能会成为另一个地缘政治领域。
 
Begun in 1996 as a body to coordinate Arctic policy, the council was for many years seen as a platform for scientists to swap research on environmental issues. More recently, it has gained prominence amid expectations that melting ice will clear the way for more resource development and free up trade routes.
北极理事会创立于1996年,初衷是协调有关北极问题的政策。多年来,该理事会一直被视作是科学家就环境问题交换研究成果的平台。近来,由于外界认为冰层消融将为更多资源开发扫清道路,开放贸易路线,北极理事会因此名声大振。
 
In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated some 22% of the world's undiscovered oil and natural-gas deposits are located above the Arctic Circle.
据美国地质调查局(U.S. Geological Survey) 2008年估计,全球未探明石油和天然气储量中约有22%位于北极圈内。
 
On Wednesday, Canada will take over the council chairmanship in a meeting that will include signing a treaty on oil-spill preparedness and response as well as the decision on whether to increase the roster of permanent observers, with India, Japan, Italy and the European Union joining China and others on the list.
北极理事会会议周三召开,加拿大将接任轮值主席国。会议议程包括签署一份漏油防范和应对协议,以及决定是否增加永久观察员名单,其中印度、日本、意大利和欧盟均加入了中国等国的申请行列。
 
Observer status, currently held by six countries, grants holders little more than the ability to attend meetings and propose projects, which then need to be approved by the permanent members.
目前有六个国家拥有观察员身份。观察员国仅能够参与会议和提出项目建议,这些项目建议需要经过成员国的批准。
 
But Beijing and Chinese businesses have been aggressively courting the council's Nordic members in a bid, analysts say, to get a toehold in the Arctic. In April, China signed a free-trade deal with Iceland, its first with a European nation. In June 2012, then-Chinese President Hu Jintao visited Denmark, when Chinese companies signed a number of commercial deals. Chinese companies have also invested in Greenland, a self-governing part of Denmark.
但分析人士说,中国政府和企业一直在积极地向理事会的北欧成员示好,目的是在北极理事会获得一个立足点。今
年4月,中国与冰岛签署了一份自由贸易协定,这是中国首次与欧洲国家签署类似协定。2012年6月,时任中国国家主席胡锦涛访问了丹麦,一些中国公司与丹麦签署了多项商业协议。中国企业还在格陵兰岛进行了投资。格陵兰岛是实行自治的丹麦属地。
 
That appears to be paying off.
这些努力似乎没有白费。
 
'Our opinion is that the countries which have a legitimate interest in discussing Arctic issues must be accepted as observers in the Arctic Council,' Danish minister of foreign affairs, Villy Sovndal, said in an interview when asked about China's bid to join.
在接受采访时,丹麦外交大臣瑟芬达尔(Villy Sovndal)在回答有关中国申请成为观察员的问题时说,我们认为,所有对探讨北极问题拥有合理兴趣的国家都应该被允许成为北极理事会的观察员国。
 
Norwegian Foreign Minister Espen Barth Eide said that all of the Nordic countries agreed that all of the applicants should be allowed in. But Mr. Barth Eide said that, days ahead of the meeting, the Nordic countries are unclear on the views of Canada, the U.S. and Russia.
挪威外交大臣艾德(Espen Barth Eide)说,北欧国家都同意,所有的申请人都应该被允许加入。不过艾德在会议前几天说,北欧国家对加拿大、美国和俄罗斯的看法并不清楚。
 
'We will do some intense work at the meeting in Kiruna to clarify this as fast as possible,' he said.
他说,我们将在基律纳的会议上完成一些紧张的工作,尽快弄清楚它们的立场。
 
Canada has so far expressed caution about expanding the council, arguing that increased numbers could complicate its work, reduce focus on the Arctic's indigenous populations and take the meetings away from the actual Arctic.
加拿大已经表示对扩大北极理事会持谨慎态度,加拿大认为,观察员国增多将使工作复杂化,使对北极原住人口的关注减少,使理事会的会议内容远离北极的真正问题。
 
Leona Aglukkaq, minister of the Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency, said the admission of extra observers is a 'serious issue.'
加拿大北方经济发展局(Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency)局长阿卢卡克(Leona Aglukkaq)说,接收新观察员国是个严肃的问题。
 
'My concern has always been the roles of the indigenous participants and. . .that their voices are not diminished,' said Ms. Aglukkaq, who was raised in the Arctic.
在北极地区长大的阿卢卡克说,我在乎的永远是本地参与者的角色……他们的声音不会被淹没。
 
A U.S. official said a final decision had yet to be taken about granting China observer status. On Friday, the White House unveiled its National Strategy for the Arctic Region, promising to advance its security interests, protect the Arctic environment and strengthen international cooperation in a 'changing' Arctic.
美国的一名官员说,还没有做出是否授予中国观察员身份的最终决定。周五,白宫发布了美国北极地区国家战略(National Strategy for the Arctic Region),发誓将推进自身安全利益,保护北极的环境,以及在不断变化的北极加强国际合作。